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Static-99 is a ten item actuarial assessment instrument created by R. Karl Hanson, Ph.D. and David Thornton, Ph.D. for use with adult male sexual offenders who are at least 18 year of age at time of release to the community. In 2012, the age item for the scale was updated, creating Static-99R. Static-99/R is the most widely used sex offender risk assessment instrument in the world, and is extensively used in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and many European nations.

This site is dedicated to the community of Static-99R users, and governed by an Advisory Board whose members approve and submit content, and rotate responsibility for answering Static-99R coding questions. Our intent is to provide useful information in a timely manner, and to promote best practices in sexual offender assessment among professionals who routinely use the instrument.

Coding questions may be submitted to Advisory Board Member Dr. Yolanda Fernandez (; please consult the coding manual and FAQs prior to submission. Routine questions are typically answered within a week.  Complex questions will be referred to the full Advisory Board for discussion and a response will be forwarded to the requestor as quickly as possible. Please be aware that discussions occur on volunteer time and given the busy schedules of the Advisory Board, it may take weeks before a response is provided. We appreciate your patience.
Veuillez envoyer les questions en français à Dr. Claire Ducro (


Please note that there is a new 2016 version of the coding manual, which should replace previous versions of the manual. In assessment reports, we recommend evaluators report which version of the coding manual was used.

Translations of the coding manual follow the 2003 version (in the archived section below), and should eventually be replaced, following the new coding rules.

Current users of Static-99R should receive training on the manual updates before using it in practice. See "Training" tab of this website for more information.

We recommend that users obtain training from a certified trainer before scoring real cases on Static-99R or Static-2002R.

We also recommend that anyone trained on the 2003 Coding Manual (or earlier versions) obtain training on the new 2016 coding manual. See below ("Static-99R Training") for more information.

Static-2002R and BARR-2002R Training

BARR-2002R is a scale that includes 6 items from Static-2002R and can be used to comment on risk for violent recidivism. Static-2002R training automatically includes BARR-2002R trianing.

  • Global Institute of Forensic Research, Live Webinar Training (Next training scheduled for May 19, 2017)

    Static-99R Training


    We recommend anyone using Static-99R obtain training from a certified trainer. Training is generally a full day, and can be online or in person, but should involve opportunities for interaction (i.e., Q&A) and supervised practice with example cases. With the new 2016 coding manual, we ask for your patience as we transition our training processes. The list of certified trainers (below) includes all those certified on the pre-2016 version of the coding manual. We are preparing a re-certification exam to ensure all our existing trainers are up-to-date on the new manual. If you are contacting a trainer or online course provider from the information below, please ask them if they are certified on the 2016 version of the coding manual. As of October 2016, trainers who are re-certified include Amy Phenix, Yolanda Fernandez, Andrew Harris, Maaike Helmus, Karl Hanson, and David Thornton. We expect many more names will follow in November/December 2016.

    If you have already been trained in Static-99 or Static-99R prior to the release of the 2016 version of the coding manual, we strongly recommend you obtain training on the updates to this coding manual, as there are many non-trivial changes (some of which may be missed if not pointed out by a trainer). This does not require a new full-day training on the scale (although in some cases a full training may be helpful as a refresher). Minimally, to be consistent with our recommendation, we suggest a half-day training specifically highlighting what is new in the coding manual (as well as reading the new manual in full, and referring to it often). Such a training (called a Booster training) is offered online on-demand by the Global Institute of Forensic Research for $65, with availability for some CE credits (see below). You can also obtain a similar training from a certified Static-99R trainer (see note above that this trainer should be re-certified on the new manual). Additional training opportunities ( e.g., with practice cases) may be helpful in consolidating and applying the new material, but should be considered optional.


    We recommend evaluators use Static-2002R instead of Static-2002.


    Note that Static-99/R training is not sufficient to score Static-2002/R. We recommend that evaluators obtain Static-2002/R training before using the scale.

    Coding Materials*
    *Note that the Static-2002 coding rules apply to all Static-2002R items, with the exception that the age item has updated weights

    Reporting Static-2002R Results

    Certified Static-2002R Trainers

    Archived Material


    For research regarding Static-2002/R, please see ‘Research’ section of the website.

    Static-99 & Related Risk Assessment Research

    The Latest Static-99R and Static-2002R Research

    • Hanson, Babchishin, Helmus, Thornton, & Phenix. (2016). Communicating the results of criterion referenced prediction measures: Risk categories for the Static-99R and Static-2002R sexual offender risk assessment tools. Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/pas0000371.
    • Hanson, Thornton, Helmus, & Babchishin (2016). What sexual recidivism rates are associated with Static-99R and Static-2002R scores? Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 28,215-282. doi:10.1177/1079063215574710.

    Static-99R and Static-2002R

    • Babchishin, Blais & Helmus. (in press, 2012). Do Static Risk Factors Predict Differently for Aboriginal Sex Offenders? A Multi-Site Comparison using the Original and Revised Static-99 and Static-2002 Scales. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice.
    • Babchishin, Hanson, & Helmus (2011). The RRASOR, Static-99R and Static-2002R all add incrementally to the prediction of recidivism among sex offenders (Corrections Research User Report 2011-01). Ottawa, ON, Canada: Public Safety.
    • Babchishin, Hanson, & Helmus (2012). Communicating risk for sex offenders: Risk ratios for Static-2002R. Sexual Offender Treatment, 7(2).
    • Babchishin, Hanson, & Helmus (2012). Even highly correlated measures can add incrementally to predicting recidivism among sex offenders. Assessment, 19(4), 442-461.
    • Hanson, Babchishin, Helmus, & Thornton. (2013). Quantifying the relative risk of sex offenders: Risk ratios for Static-99R. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 25(5), 482-515.
    • Hanson, Lloyd, Helmus, & Thornton. (2012). Developing non-arbitrary metrics for risk communication: Percentile ranks for the Static-99/R and Static-2002/R sexual offender risk tools. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 11(1), 9-23.
    • Hanson, Thornton, Helmus, & Babchishin (2015, in press). What sexual recidivism rates are associated with Static-99R and Static-2002R scores? Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment.
    • Hanson & Thornton. (2012). Preselection Effects Can Explain Group Differences in Sexual Recidivism Base Rates in Static-99R and Static-2002R Validation Studies (Paper presented at the 31st Annual Research and Treatment Conference of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abuser, Denver, CO.)
    • Helmus, Hanson, Thornton, Babchishin, & Harris. (in press, 2012). Absolute recidivism rates predicted by Static-99R and Static-2002R sex offender risk assessment tools vary across samples: A meta-analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior.
    • Helmus, Thornton, Hanson, & Babchishin. (2012). Improving the predictive accuracy of Static-99 and Static-2002 with older sex offenders: Revised age weights. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 24(1), 64-101.

    Given that only the age item has changed for the revised Static scales, research regarding the original scales can be considered roughly applicable to the revised scales as well.




    • Hanson, Helmus, & Thornton (2010). Predicting recidivism amongst sexual offenders: A multi-site study of Static-2002. Law and Human Behavior, 34, 198-211.
    • Helmus & Hanson (2007). Predictive validity of the Static-99 and Static-2002 for sex offenders on community supervision. Sexual Offender Treatment, 2(2), 1-14.
    • Hanson & Thornton (2003). Notes on the development of Static-2002 (Corrections Research User Report 2003-01). Ottawa, ON: Solicitor General of Canada.

    Estimating Lifetime and Residual Risk

    Other Research on Sex Offender Risk Assessment

    • Hanson & Morton-Bourgon (2009). The accuracy of recidivism risk assessments for sexual offenders: A meta-analysis of 118 prediction studies. Psychological Assessment, 21, 1-21.
    • Hanson, Harris, Scott, & Helmus (2007). Assessing the risk of sexual offenders on community supervision: The Dynamic Supervision Project (Corrections Research User Report 2007-05). Ottawa, ON: Public Safety Canada.
    • Hanson & Morton-Bourgon (2004). Predictors of sexual recidivism: An updated meta-analysis (Corrections Research User Report 2004-02). Ottawa, ON: Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada.
    • Harris & Hanson (2004). Sex offender recidivism: A simple question (Corrections Research User Report 2004-03). Ottawa, ON: Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada.
    • Hanson & Harris (1998). Dynamic predictors of sexual recidivism (Corrections Research User Report 1998-01). Ottawa, ON: Solicitor General of Canada.

    Ongoing Research

    • Info on research studies underway - coming soon
    • Data Collection/Coding Standards - coming soon


    Current Norms

    The developers of Static-99 recommend that evaluators use Static-99R instead of Static-99. Note that we no longer endorse reporting violent recidivism estimates for Static-99R. To comment on risk for violent or any recidivism among sex offenders, we recommend using BARR-2002R (training on BARR-2002R is incorporated in Static-2002R training).

    The Evaluator Workbook includes templates for reporting Static-99R and Static-2002R scores. These are only examples, and evaluators should use their professional judgement concerning the preferred wording, taking into consideration the purpose of the assessment and the expected readers of the report. Evaluators should feel free to download and edit the WORD document as they see fit

    Static-99R Norms - Archived Material

    Static-99 Norms

    Note that the revised Static-99 norms contain fewer samples than the Static-99R norms. We do not plan to continue research on the Static-99 norms given that we recommend evaluators use the Static-99R.

    Disclaimer: The content of the STATIC-99 website (including the scoring rules and responses to questions) is accurate according to the opinions of the authors of the coding rules. The information and directions may or may not apply to specific individuals considered for assessment using the STATIC-99. Determination of appropriate application and scoring of the STATIC-99 to specific cases and in specific jurisdictions requires the judgment of an evaluator trained in the applied use of the STATIC-99.